A new endoparasitic fungus on Xiphinema and cultivation o f Rhabditis spp and Aphelenchus avenae on same fungus

A new endoparasitic fungus on Xiphinema and cultivation o f Rhabditis spp and Aphelenchus avenae... SHORT COMMUNICATIONS M. C. GUPTA, R. S. SINGH and K. SITARAMAIAH 1): A new endoparasitic fungus on Xiphinema and cultivation o f Rhabditis spp and Aphelenchus avenae on same fungus. During studies of the effect of chitin amendment of soil on the population dynamics of plant parasitic, mycophagous and predatory nematodes it was noticed that about 90% of the larvae of Xiphinema spp. and other dorylaimids were heavily infested by a phycomycete. The fungus killed the larvae and was commonly seen emanating from the body. The majority of the larvae carried only the mycelium in or on their body with no fruiting structures but about 2 ?o had hyphae with apical sporangia. The fungus could be cultured on milk agar and maize meal agar media con- taining dicrysticin (Strepto-penicillin) as antibacterial agent. The culture was obtained from infected nematodes that had been immersed in a solution of strep- tomycin sulphate (o.oi jlo ) and aretan ( 0.02 % ) for about 1 min and rinsed in sterile water and placing them in the centre of the petriplates. The plates were incubated at 28°. The fungus grew fast and covered the whole plate (95 mm) within 72 to 96 hr. The growth was faster on maize meal agar than on the milk agar medium. Sporulation occurred after 10-15 days on maize meal agar and after 7 days on milk agar medium. The mycelium of the fungus is coenocytic, much branched, hyaline, hyphae measuring 4-7 pm in diameter. Zoosporangia are terminal, subspherical to globose, smooth walled, hyaline, papillate, measuring 17.5 to 28.5 ,pm (average 25.5 pm) in diameter. The oospores are round, thick-walled, smooth, hyaline and measure 12.5 to 24.5 pm in diameter. The fungus has been identified as Pythium middletonii Sparrow by Dr. D. J. Stamps of C.M.I., Kew, England (Herb. I.M.I. No. 212656). Pathogenicity of the fungus on Xiphinema spp. and other dorylaimids was con- firmed. Suspension of mycelial fragments, sporangia and oospores in sterile water was placed in glass cavity blocks at 2 5 and ten live and active larvae, treated in a solution of streptomycin sulphate and aretan and rinsed in sterile water, were transferred to the suspension. Colonisation of the larvae by the fungus started in 5 days and within 10 days the entire body was permeated by hyphae. In the next 5 days zoosporangia were observed at the tips of the hyphae. In separate observations it was noticed that while P. middletonii was an endozoic parasite of Xiphinema spp and other dorylaimids, it served as food for Aphelenchus avenae and Rhabditif spp. Ten to 15 day-old cultures of the fungus grown on maize meal agar medium were inoculated aseptically on to different plates with about 50 adult and healthy females of A. avenae and Rhabditi.r spp. and incubated at 25-28°. About 20.000 to 25.000 nematodes could be extracted from each plate after 15 days. Rhabditis spp. multiplied faster than A. avenae in this fungus. 1) Research paper no. 1481 of the Experiment Station. Department of Plant Pathology, G. B. Pant University, Pantnagar 263145, India. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Nematologica Brill

A new endoparasitic fungus on Xiphinema and cultivation o f Rhabditis spp and Aphelenchus avenae on same fungus

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Publisher
BRILL
Copyright
© 1979 Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands
ISSN
0028-2596
eISSN
1875-2926
D.O.I.
10.1163/187529279X00479
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Abstract

SHORT COMMUNICATIONS M. C. GUPTA, R. S. SINGH and K. SITARAMAIAH 1): A new endoparasitic fungus on Xiphinema and cultivation o f Rhabditis spp and Aphelenchus avenae on same fungus. During studies of the effect of chitin amendment of soil on the population dynamics of plant parasitic, mycophagous and predatory nematodes it was noticed that about 90% of the larvae of Xiphinema spp. and other dorylaimids were heavily infested by a phycomycete. The fungus killed the larvae and was commonly seen emanating from the body. The majority of the larvae carried only the mycelium in or on their body with no fruiting structures but about 2 ?o had hyphae with apical sporangia. The fungus could be cultured on milk agar and maize meal agar media con- taining dicrysticin (Strepto-penicillin) as antibacterial agent. The culture was obtained from infected nematodes that had been immersed in a solution of strep- tomycin sulphate (o.oi jlo ) and aretan ( 0.02 % ) for about 1 min and rinsed in sterile water and placing them in the centre of the petriplates. The plates were incubated at 28°. The fungus grew fast and covered the whole plate (95 mm) within 72 to 96 hr. The growth was faster on maize meal agar than on the milk agar medium. Sporulation occurred after 10-15 days on maize meal agar and after 7 days on milk agar medium. The mycelium of the fungus is coenocytic, much branched, hyaline, hyphae measuring 4-7 pm in diameter. Zoosporangia are terminal, subspherical to globose, smooth walled, hyaline, papillate, measuring 17.5 to 28.5 ,pm (average 25.5 pm) in diameter. The oospores are round, thick-walled, smooth, hyaline and measure 12.5 to 24.5 pm in diameter. The fungus has been identified as Pythium middletonii Sparrow by Dr. D. J. Stamps of C.M.I., Kew, England (Herb. I.M.I. No. 212656). Pathogenicity of the fungus on Xiphinema spp. and other dorylaimids was con- firmed. Suspension of mycelial fragments, sporangia and oospores in sterile water was placed in glass cavity blocks at 2 5 and ten live and active larvae, treated in a solution of streptomycin sulphate and aretan and rinsed in sterile water, were transferred to the suspension. Colonisation of the larvae by the fungus started in 5 days and within 10 days the entire body was permeated by hyphae. In the next 5 days zoosporangia were observed at the tips of the hyphae. In separate observations it was noticed that while P. middletonii was an endozoic parasite of Xiphinema spp and other dorylaimids, it served as food for Aphelenchus avenae and Rhabditif spp. Ten to 15 day-old cultures of the fungus grown on maize meal agar medium were inoculated aseptically on to different plates with about 50 adult and healthy females of A. avenae and Rhabditi.r spp. and incubated at 25-28°. About 20.000 to 25.000 nematodes could be extracted from each plate after 15 days. Rhabditis spp. multiplied faster than A. avenae in this fungus. 1) Research paper no. 1481 of the Experiment Station. Department of Plant Pathology, G. B. Pant University, Pantnagar 263145, India.

Journal

NematologicaBrill

Published: Jan 1, 1979

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