A Hybrid Approach to Facial Rigging David Komorowskiâ Walt Disney Animation Studios Vinod Melapudi Sidhe Interaction Darren Mortillaro ¡ Sony Pictures Gene S. LeeÂ§ Walt Disney Animation Studios (a) Controls on Face (b) Locators on Skull (c) Animation Retargeting from One Rig to Another Figure 1: Facial Rigging using Pose Space Deformation Introduction In production environments, facial rigging is commonly done by either geometric deformations or blendshapes. Geometric deformations are driven by simulated muscle actions, which are loosely based upon the dynamics of facial tissue [Magnenat-Thalmann et al. 1988]. Blendshapes interpolate a large number of sculpted shapes [Bergeron and Lachapelle 1985]. The former approach is intuitive, yet slow and less precise. The latter is fast, yet memory intensive and sensitive to model changes. Conventional implementations of both approaches are di cult to generalize in order to build rigs quickly and retarget animation e ciently. This paper introduces a general approach to facial rigging that is a hybrid of the two approaches. It uses pose space deformation (PSD) [Lewis et al. 2000] to seamlessly combine both geometric deformations and blendshapes. PSD is a technique for scattered data interpolation that is useful in manipulating both numerics and shapes [Lee and
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