Universality and tails of long-range interactions in one dimension
AbstractLong-range interactions and, in particular, two-body potentials with power-law long-distance tails are ubiquitous in nature. For two bosons or fermions in one spatial dimension, the latter case being formally equivalent to three-dimensional s-wave scattering, we show how generic asymptotic interaction tails can be accounted for in the long-distance limit of scattering wave functions. This is made possible by introducing a generalization of the collisional phase shifts to include space dependence. We show that this distance dependence is universal, in that it does not depend on short-distance details of the interaction. The energy dependence is also universal, and is fully determined by the asymptotic tails of the two-body potential. As an important application of our findings, we describe how to eliminate finite-size effects with long-range potentials in the calculation of scattering phase shifts from exact diagonalization. We show that even with moderately small system sizes it is possible to accurately extract phase shifts that would otherwise be plagued with finite-size errors. We also consider multichannel scattering, focusing on the estimation of open channel asymptotic interaction strengths via finite-size analysis.