Relationship between and effect of inelastic excitations and transfer channels on sub-barrier fusion enhancement
AbstractBackground: It is a well established fact that nuclear deformation and vibration influence fusion dynamics around the Coulomb barrier. This effect was observed for several systems with the inclusion of inelastic excitations in coupled-channels calculations. Sub-barrier fusion cross sections were also observed to be affected by neutron transfer in systems carrying positive Q value for transfer channels. However, recent experimental analysis with a few systems showed that inelastic excitations are enough to explain the sub-barrier fusion behavior, and no effect was noticed due to positive Q-value transfer channels.Purpose: The motivation behind present investigation is to explore the effects of colliding nuclei structure and the transfer channel on enhancement of sub-barrier fusion cross sections.Method: An experiment was performed with Heavy Ion Reaction Analyzer (HIRA) at New Delhi to measure the fusion cross sections for Si28+Zr92,96 systems. These cross sections were later compared with quantum mechanical coupled-channels calculations. In order to explore the effects of nuclear deformation on fusion cross sections, the present data were compared with those of other researchers on fusion who have used various projectiles of different structural properties on a Zr96 target.Results: Experimental fusion cross sections have been extracted around the Coulomb barrier. In the coupled-channels framework, inclusion of inelastic excitations of both projectile (Si28) and targets (Zr92,96) could reproduce the experimental cross sections around the Coulomb barrier, but they deviated substantially in the sub-barrier region. This indicates that positive Q-value neutron transfer channels may need to be included in the calculations to reproduce the experimental cross sections at sub-barrier energies.Conclusions: The nuclear structure of interacting nuclei has a strong influence on sub-barrier fusion enhancement. The effect of multineutron transfer channels was observed to be significant for fusion, especially for those systems where interacting nuclei are less deformed or spherical.