Quantum and thermal fluctuations in a Raman spin-orbit-coupled Bose gas
AbstractWe theoretically study a three-dimensional weakly interacting Bose gas with Raman-induced spin-orbit coupling at finite temperature. By employing a generalized Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov theory with Popov approximation, we determine a complete finite-temperature phase diagram of three exotic condensation phases (i.e., the stripe, plane-wave, and zero-momentum phases), against both quantum and thermal fluctuations. We find that the plane-wave phase is significantly broadened by thermal fluctuations. The phonon mode and sound velocity at the transition from the plane-wave phase to the zero-momentum phase are thoughtfully analyzed. At zero temperature, we find that quantum fluctuations open an unexpected gap in sound velocity at the phase transition, in stark contrast to the previous theoretical prediction of a vanishing sound velocity. At finite temperature, thermal fluctuations continue to significantly enlarge the gap, and simultaneously shift the critical minimum. For a Bose gas of Rb87 atoms at the typical experimental temperature, T=0.3T0, where T0 is the critical temperature of an ideal Bose gas without spin-orbit coupling, our results of gap opening and critical minimum shifting in the sound velocity are qualitatively consistent with the recent experimental observation [Ji , Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 105301 (2015)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.114.105301].