Polarization-resolved terahertz third-harmonic generation in a single-crystal superconductor NbN: Dominance of the Higgs mode beyond the BCS approximation

Polarization-resolved terahertz third-harmonic generation in a single-crystal superconductor NbN:... Recent advances in time-domain terahertz (THz) spectroscopy have unveiled that resonantly enhanced strong THz third-harmonic generation (THG) mediated by the collective Higgs amplitude mode occurs in s-wave superconductors, where charge-density fluctuations (CDFs) have been shown to also contribute to the nonlinear third-order susceptibility. It has been theoretically proposed that the nonlinear responses of Higgs and CDF exhibit essentially different polarization dependences. Here we experimentally discriminate the two contributions by polarization-resolved intense THz transmission spectroscopy for a single-crystal NbN film. The result shows that the resonant THG in the transmitted light always appears in the polarization parallel to that of the incident light with no appreciable polarization-angle dependence relative to the crystal axis. When we compare this with the theoretical calculation here with the BCS approximation and the dynamical mean-field theory for a model of NbN constructed from first principles, the experimental result strongly indicates that the Higgs mode rather than the CDF dominates the THG resonance in NbN. A possible mechanism for this is the retardation effect in the phonon-mediated pairing interaction beyond BCS. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Physical Review B American Physical Society (APS)

Polarization-resolved terahertz third-harmonic generation in a single-crystal superconductor NbN: Dominance of the Higgs mode beyond the BCS approximation

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Polarization-resolved terahertz third-harmonic generation in a single-crystal superconductor NbN: Dominance of the Higgs mode beyond the BCS approximation

Abstract

Recent advances in time-domain terahertz (THz) spectroscopy have unveiled that resonantly enhanced strong THz third-harmonic generation (THG) mediated by the collective Higgs amplitude mode occurs in s-wave superconductors, where charge-density fluctuations (CDFs) have been shown to also contribute to the nonlinear third-order susceptibility. It has been theoretically proposed that the nonlinear responses of Higgs and CDF exhibit essentially different polarization dependences. Here we experimentally discriminate the two contributions by polarization-resolved intense THz transmission spectroscopy for a single-crystal NbN film. The result shows that the resonant THG in the transmitted light always appears in the polarization parallel to that of the incident light with no appreciable polarization-angle dependence relative to the crystal axis. When we compare this with the theoretical calculation here with the BCS approximation and the dynamical mean-field theory for a model of NbN constructed from first principles, the experimental result strongly indicates that the Higgs mode rather than the CDF dominates the THG resonance in NbN. A possible mechanism for this is the retardation effect in the phonon-mediated pairing interaction beyond BCS.
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Publisher
The American Physical Society
Copyright
Copyright © ©2017 American Physical Society
ISSN
1098-0121
eISSN
1550-235X
D.O.I.
10.1103/PhysRevB.96.020505
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Recent advances in time-domain terahertz (THz) spectroscopy have unveiled that resonantly enhanced strong THz third-harmonic generation (THG) mediated by the collective Higgs amplitude mode occurs in s-wave superconductors, where charge-density fluctuations (CDFs) have been shown to also contribute to the nonlinear third-order susceptibility. It has been theoretically proposed that the nonlinear responses of Higgs and CDF exhibit essentially different polarization dependences. Here we experimentally discriminate the two contributions by polarization-resolved intense THz transmission spectroscopy for a single-crystal NbN film. The result shows that the resonant THG in the transmitted light always appears in the polarization parallel to that of the incident light with no appreciable polarization-angle dependence relative to the crystal axis. When we compare this with the theoretical calculation here with the BCS approximation and the dynamical mean-field theory for a model of NbN constructed from first principles, the experimental result strongly indicates that the Higgs mode rather than the CDF dominates the THG resonance in NbN. A possible mechanism for this is the retardation effect in the phonon-mediated pairing interaction beyond BCS.

Journal

Physical Review BAmerican Physical Society (APS)

Published: Jul 21, 2017

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