Entanglement verification of noisy NOON states
AbstractEntangled quantum states, such as NOON states, are of major importance for quantum technologies due to their quantum-enhanced performance. At the same time, their quantum correlations are relatively vulnerable when they are subjected to imperfections. Therefore, it is crucial to determine under which circumstances their distinct quantum features can be exploited. In this paper, we study the entanglement property of noisy NOON states. This class of states is a generalization of NOON states including various attenuation effects, such as mixing, constant or fluctuating losses, and dephasing. To verify their entanglement, we pursue two strategies: detection-based entanglement witnesses and entanglement quasiprobabilities. Both methods result from our solution of so-called separability eigenvalue equations. In particular, the entanglement quasiprobabilities allow for a full entanglement characterization. As examples of our general treatment, the cases of NOON states subjected to Gaussian dephasing and fluctuating atmospheric losses are explicitly studied. In any correlated fluctuating loss channel, entanglement is found to survive for nonzero transmissivity. In addition, an extension of our approach to multipartite systems is given, and the relation to the quantum-optical nonclassicality in phase space is discussed.