Entanglement Entropy of Eigenstates of Quadratic Fermionic Hamiltonians

Entanglement Entropy of Eigenstates of Quadratic Fermionic Hamiltonians In a seminal paper [D. N. Page, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1291 (1993)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.71.1291], Page proved that the average entanglement entropy of subsystems of random pure states is Save≃lnDA-(1/2)DA2/D for 1≪DA≤D, where DA and D are the Hilbert space dimensions of the subsystem and the system, respectively. Hence, typical pure states are (nearly) maximally entangled. We develop tools to compute the average entanglement entropy ⟨S⟩ of all eigenstates of quadratic fermionic Hamiltonians. In particular, we derive exact bounds for the most general translationally invariant models lnDA-(lnDA)2/lnD≤⟨S⟩≤lnDA-[1/(2ln2)](lnDA)2/lnD. Consequently, we prove that (i) if the subsystem size is a finite fraction of the system size, then ⟨S⟩<lnDA in the thermodynamic limit; i.e., the average over eigenstates of the Hamiltonian departs from the result for typical pure states, and (ii) in the limit in which the subsystem size is a vanishing fraction of the system size, the average entanglement entropy is maximal; i.e., typical eigenstates of such Hamiltonians exhibit eigenstate thermalization. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Physical Review Letters American Physical Society (APS)

Entanglement Entropy of Eigenstates of Quadratic Fermionic Hamiltonians

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Entanglement Entropy of Eigenstates of Quadratic Fermionic Hamiltonians

Abstract

In a seminal paper [D. N. Page, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1291 (1993)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.71.1291], Page proved that the average entanglement entropy of subsystems of random pure states is Save≃lnDA-(1/2)DA2/D for 1≪DA≤D, where DA and D are the Hilbert space dimensions of the subsystem and the system, respectively. Hence, typical pure states are (nearly) maximally entangled. We develop tools to compute the average entanglement entropy ⟨S⟩ of all eigenstates of quadratic fermionic Hamiltonians. In particular, we derive exact bounds for the most general translationally invariant models lnDA-(lnDA)2/lnD≤⟨S⟩≤lnDA-[1/(2ln2)](lnDA)2/lnD. Consequently, we prove that (i) if the subsystem size is a finite fraction of the system size, then ⟨S⟩<lnDA in the thermodynamic limit; i.e., the average over eigenstates of the Hamiltonian departs from the result for typical pure states, and (ii) in the limit in which the subsystem size is a vanishing fraction of the system size, the average entanglement entropy is maximal; i.e., typical eigenstates of such Hamiltonians exhibit eigenstate thermalization.
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Publisher
The American Physical Society
Copyright
Copyright © © 2017 American Physical Society
ISSN
0031-9007
eISSN
1079-7114
D.O.I.
10.1103/PhysRevLett.119.020601
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

In a seminal paper [D. N. Page, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1291 (1993)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.71.1291], Page proved that the average entanglement entropy of subsystems of random pure states is Save≃lnDA-(1/2)DA2/D for 1≪DA≤D, where DA and D are the Hilbert space dimensions of the subsystem and the system, respectively. Hence, typical pure states are (nearly) maximally entangled. We develop tools to compute the average entanglement entropy ⟨S⟩ of all eigenstates of quadratic fermionic Hamiltonians. In particular, we derive exact bounds for the most general translationally invariant models lnDA-(lnDA)2/lnD≤⟨S⟩≤lnDA-[1/(2ln2)](lnDA)2/lnD. Consequently, we prove that (i) if the subsystem size is a finite fraction of the system size, then ⟨S⟩<lnDA in the thermodynamic limit; i.e., the average over eigenstates of the Hamiltonian departs from the result for typical pure states, and (ii) in the limit in which the subsystem size is a vanishing fraction of the system size, the average entanglement entropy is maximal; i.e., typical eigenstates of such Hamiltonians exhibit eigenstate thermalization.

Journal

Physical Review LettersAmerican Physical Society (APS)

Published: Jul 14, 2017

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