Efficiently Controllable Graphs
AbstractWe investigate graphs that can be disconnected into small components by removing a vanishingly small fraction of their vertices. We show that, when a controllable quantum network is described by such a graph and the gaps in eigenfrequencies and in transition frequencies are bounded exponentially in the number of vertices, the network is efficiently controllable, in the sense that universal quantum computation can be performed using a control sequence polynomial in the size of the network while controlling a vanishingly small fraction of subsystems. We show that networks corresponding to finite-dimensional lattices are efficiently controllable and explore generalizations to percolation clusters and random graphs. We show that the classical computational complexity of estimating the ground state of Hamiltonians described by controllable graphs is polynomial in the number of subsystems or qubits.