Dynamics of viscous cosmologies in the full Israel-Stewart formalism
AbstractA detailed dynamical analysis for a bulk viscosity model in the full Israel-Stewart formalism for a spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe is performed. In our study we have considered the total cosmic fluid constituted by radiation, dark matter, and dark energy. The dark matter fluid is treated as an imperfect fluid which has a bulk viscosity that depends on its energy density in the usual form ξ(ρm)=ξ0ρm1/2, whereas the other components are assumed to behave as perfect fluids with constant equation of state parameter. We show that the thermal history of the Universe is reproduced provided that the viscous coefficient satisfies the condition ξ0≪1, either for a zero or a suitable nonzero coupling between dark energy and viscous dark matter. In this case, the final attractor is a dark-energy-dominated, accelerating universe, with an effective equation of state parameter in the quintessence-like, cosmological constant-like, or phantom-like regime, in agreement with observations. As our main result, we show that in order to obtain a viable cosmological evolution and at the same time alleviating the cosmological coincidence problem via the mechanism of scaling solution, an explicit interaction between dark energy and viscous dark matter seems inevitable. This result is consistent with the well-known fact that models where dark matter and dark energy interact with each other have been proposed to solve the coincidence problem. Furthermore, by insisting on above, we show that in the present context a phantom nature of this interacting dark energy fluid is also favored.