Direct Extraction of Excitation Energies from Ensemble Density-Functional Theory
AbstractA very specific ensemble of ground and excited states is shown to yield an exact formula for any excitation energy as a simple correction to the energy difference between orbitals of the Kohn-Sham ground state. This alternative scheme avoids either the need to calculate many unoccupied levels as in time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) or the need for many self-consistent ensemble calculations. The symmetry-eigenstate Hartree-exchange (SEHX) approximation yields results comparable to standard TDDFT for atoms. With this formalism, SEHX yields approximate double excitations, which are missed by adiabatic TDDFT.