Contact angle entropy and macroscopic friction in noncohesive two-dimensional granular packings
AbstractWe study the relationship between the granular contact angle distribution and local particle friction on the macroscopic friction and bulk modulus in noncohesive disk packings. Molecular dynamics in two dimensions are used to simulate uniaxial loading-unloading cycles imposed on the granular packings. While macroscopic Mohr friction depends on the granular pack geometric details, it reaches a stationary limit after a finite number of loading-unloading cycles that render well-defined values for bulk modulus, grain coordination, porosity, and friction. For random packings and for all polydispersities analyzed, we found that as interparticle friction increases, the bulk modulus for the limit cycle decreases linearly, while the mean coordination number is reduced and the porosity increased, also as approximately linear functions. On the other hand, the macroscopic Mohr friction increases in a monotonous trend with interparticle friction. The latter result is compared to a theoretical model that assumes the existence of sliding planes corresponding to definite Mohr-friction values. The simulation results for macroscopic friction are well described by the theoretical model that incorporates the local neighbor angle distribution that can be quantified through the contact angle entropy. As local friction is increased, the limit entropy of the neighbor angle distribution is reduced, thus introducing the geometric component to granular friction. Surprisingly, once the limit cycle is reached, the Mohr friction seems to be insensitive to polydispersity as has been recently reported.