Classical ergodicity and quantum eigenstate thermalization: Analysis in fully connected Ising ferromagnets
AbstractWe investigate the relation between the classical ergodicity and the quantum eigenstate thermalization in the fully connected Ising ferromagnets. In the case of spin-1/2, an expectation value of an observable in a single-energy eigenstate coincides with the long-time average in the underlying classical dynamics, which is a consequence of the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation. In the case of spin-1, the underlying classical dynamics is not necessarily ergodic. In that case, it turns out that, in the thermodynamic limit, the statistics of the expectation values of an observable in the energy eigenstates coincides with the statistics of the long-time averages in the underlying classical dynamics starting from random initial states sampled uniformly from the classical phase space. This feature seems to be a general property in semiclassical systems, and the result presented here is crucial in discussing equilibration, thermalization, and dynamical transitions of such systems.