Genetic Basis for Sex Differences in Obesity and Lipid Metabolism

Genetic Basis for Sex Differences in Obesity and Lipid Metabolism Men and women exhibit significant differences in obesity, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. To provide better diagnosis and treatment for both sexes, it is important to identify factors that underlie the observed sex differences. Traditionally, sex differences have been attributed to the differential effects of male and female gonadal secretions (commonly referred to as sex hormones), which substantially influence many aspects of metabolism and related diseases. Less appreciated as a contributor to sex differences are the fundamental genetic differences between males and females, which are ultimately determined by the presence of an XX or XY sex chromosome complement. Here, we review the mechanisms by which gonadal hormones and sex chromosome complement each contribute to lipid metabolism and associated diseases, and the current approaches that are used to study them. We focus particularly on genetic approaches including genome-wide association studies in humans and mice, -omics and systems genetics approaches, and unique experimental mouse models that allow distinction between gonadal and sex chromosome effects. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Annual Review of Nutrition Annual Reviews

Genetic Basis for Sex Differences in Obesity and Lipid Metabolism

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Publisher
Annual Reviews
Copyright
Copyright 2017 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved
ISSN
0199-9885
eISSN
1545-4312
D.O.I.
10.1146/annurev-nutr-071816-064827
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Men and women exhibit significant differences in obesity, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. To provide better diagnosis and treatment for both sexes, it is important to identify factors that underlie the observed sex differences. Traditionally, sex differences have been attributed to the differential effects of male and female gonadal secretions (commonly referred to as sex hormones), which substantially influence many aspects of metabolism and related diseases. Less appreciated as a contributor to sex differences are the fundamental genetic differences between males and females, which are ultimately determined by the presence of an XX or XY sex chromosome complement. Here, we review the mechanisms by which gonadal hormones and sex chromosome complement each contribute to lipid metabolism and associated diseases, and the current approaches that are used to study them. We focus particularly on genetic approaches including genome-wide association studies in humans and mice, -omics and systems genetics approaches, and unique experimental mouse models that allow distinction between gonadal and sex chromosome effects.

Journal

Annual Review of NutritionAnnual Reviews

Published: Aug 21, 2017

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