Clostridium difficile is the cause of antibiotics-associated diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis. The pathogen produces three protein toxins: C. difficile toxins A (TcdA) and B (TcdB), and C. difficile transferase toxin (CDT). The single-chain toxins TcdA and TcdB are the main virulence factors. They bind to cell membrane receptors and are internalized. The N-terminal glucosyltransferase and autoprotease domains of the toxins translocate from low-pH endosomes into the cytosol. After activation by inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6), the autoprotease cleaves and releases the glucosyltransferase domain into the cytosol, where GTP-binding proteins of the RhoRas family are mono-O-glucosylated and, thereby, inactivated. Inactivation of Rho proteins disturbs the organization of the cytoskeleton and affects multiple Rho-dependent cellular processes, including loss of epithelial barrier functions, induction of apoptosis, and inflammation. CDT, the third C. difficile toxin, is a binary actin-ADP-ribosylating toxin that causes depolymerization of actin, thereby inducing formation of the microtubule-based protrusions. Recent progress in understanding of the toxins actions include insights into the toxin structures, their interaction with host cells, and functional consequences of their actions.
Annual Review of Microbiology – Annual Reviews
Published: Sep 8, 2017
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