Transcription Factors: Structural Families and Principles of DNA Recognition

Transcription Factors: Structural Families and Principles of DNA Recognition DNA-binding proteins play central roles in biology . Among other activities, they are responsible for replicating the genome, for transcribing active genes, and for repairing damaged DNA. One of the largest and most diverse classes of DNA-binding proteins are the transcription factors that regulate gene expression. In this review, we focus on structural studies of the DNA-binding domains from these transcription factors. A more general review of protein­ nucleic acid interactions, which also includes a discussion of restriction enzymes, polymerases, and RNA-binding proteins, can be found in Steitz (1). Transcription factors regulate cell development, differentiation, and cell growth by binding to a specific DNA site (or set of sites) and regulating gene expression. One cannot fully understand how genetic information is utilized without understanding the structure and DNA-binding properties of these transcription factors. In this review, we address progress in understanding the structural basis for sequence-specific binding . What secondary structures can provide a surface that is complementary to the structure of double-helical DNA? What contacts with the bases and the DNA backbone allow site­ specific recognition? How does understanding these structural details enhance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in repression and activation of gene expression? http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Annual Review of Biochemistry Annual Reviews

Transcription Factors: Structural Families and Principles of DNA Recognition

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Publisher
Annual Reviews
Copyright
Copyright 1992 Annual Reviews. All rights reserved
Subject
Review Articles
ISSN
0066-4154
eISSN
1545-4509
D.O.I.
10.1146/annurev.bi.61.070192.005201
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

DNA-binding proteins play central roles in biology . Among other activities, they are responsible for replicating the genome, for transcribing active genes, and for repairing damaged DNA. One of the largest and most diverse classes of DNA-binding proteins are the transcription factors that regulate gene expression. In this review, we focus on structural studies of the DNA-binding domains from these transcription factors. A more general review of protein­ nucleic acid interactions, which also includes a discussion of restriction enzymes, polymerases, and RNA-binding proteins, can be found in Steitz (1). Transcription factors regulate cell development, differentiation, and cell growth by binding to a specific DNA site (or set of sites) and regulating gene expression. One cannot fully understand how genetic information is utilized without understanding the structure and DNA-binding properties of these transcription factors. In this review, we address progress in understanding the structural basis for sequence-specific binding . What secondary structures can provide a surface that is complementary to the structure of double-helical DNA? What contacts with the bases and the DNA backbone allow site­ specific recognition? How does understanding these structural details enhance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in repression and activation of gene expression?

Journal

Annual Review of BiochemistryAnnual Reviews

Published: Jul 1, 1992

Keywords: protein-DNA recognition; DNA-binding protein; helix-turn-helix; homeodomain; zinc finger

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