Topography of Glycosylation in The Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum and Golgi Apparatus

Topography of Glycosylation in The Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum and Golgi Apparatus 0066-4154/87/0701-0063$02. 00 HIRSCHBERG & SNIDER PERSPECTIVES AND SUMMARY A great deal has been learned about the synthesis of N- and O-linked oligosaccharides , proteoglycans, and glycolipids (see reviews 1-5). Many of the reactions have been studied in detail, and a number of the glycosyltrans­ ferases involved have been purified. In addition, the subcellular locations of these reactions have been intensely studied. It is now known that nearly all of these steps occur in the Golgi apparatus (GA). Among the exceptions are the early stages of N-linked oligosaccharide synthesis, which occur in the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER). However, comparable understanding has not been available for the topo­ graphical aspects of glycosylation. The topographical problem is based on the fact that sugar residues must move across membranes as part of these reac­ tions. While the nucleotide sugar substrates are made either in the cytoplasm or, in the case of CMP-NeuAc, in the nucleus (6-8), the macromolecular products are found in the lumen of the RER and GA. Moreover, because virtually none of these macromolecules are found in the cytoplasm, the glycosylation reactions must be organized to ensure the transmembrane move­ ment of sugar residues. Recent work has begun to uncover http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Annual Review of Biochemistry Annual Reviews

Topography of Glycosylation in The Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum and Golgi Apparatus

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Publisher
Annual Reviews
Copyright
Copyright 1987 Annual Reviews. All rights reserved
Subject
Review Articles
ISSN
0066-4154
eISSN
1545-4509
DOI
10.1146/annurev.bi.56.070187.000431
pmid
3304145
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

0066-4154/87/0701-0063$02. 00 HIRSCHBERG & SNIDER PERSPECTIVES AND SUMMARY A great deal has been learned about the synthesis of N- and O-linked oligosaccharides , proteoglycans, and glycolipids (see reviews 1-5). Many of the reactions have been studied in detail, and a number of the glycosyltrans­ ferases involved have been purified. In addition, the subcellular locations of these reactions have been intensely studied. It is now known that nearly all of these steps occur in the Golgi apparatus (GA). Among the exceptions are the early stages of N-linked oligosaccharide synthesis, which occur in the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER). However, comparable understanding has not been available for the topo­ graphical aspects of glycosylation. The topographical problem is based on the fact that sugar residues must move across membranes as part of these reac­ tions. While the nucleotide sugar substrates are made either in the cytoplasm or, in the case of CMP-NeuAc, in the nucleus (6-8), the macromolecular products are found in the lumen of the RER and GA. Moreover, because virtually none of these macromolecules are found in the cytoplasm, the glycosylation reactions must be organized to ensure the transmembrane move­ ment of sugar residues. Recent work has begun to uncover

Journal

Annual Review of BiochemistryAnnual Reviews

Published: Jul 1, 1987

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