Although endemic goiter with cretinism was described by Paracelsus (14931541) and other physicians living in the Alps and Central Europe, the relation that time (48). The thyroid gland itself was only adequately described for the between the disease, cretinism, and the thyroid gland was not recognized at first time in 1656 by Wharton (91). Even as late as 1850, this relationship was still unrealized, despite Curling's description of two cases of cretinism in children associated with absence of the thyroid gland at autopsy twice weekly injections of an extract of sheep thyroid (15). In 1891, Murray reported that the symptoms of hypothyroidism could be relieved by (53). The discovery of thyroid extract therapy for hypothyroidism is described by Sir William Osler (60): "That we can rescue children otherwise doomed to helpless idiocy is a triumph of experimental medicine. Within six weeks, a poor feeble minded toad like caricature of humanity may be restored to mental and bodily health." Thus thyroid hormone plays an important role in the central nervous system (eNS). The most striking effects are observed during maturation of the CNS: The absence of thyroid hormones during this period produces multiple morÂ phological and biochemical alterations and
Annual Review of Physiology – Annual Reviews
Published: Mar 1, 1987
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