Dennis W. Choi Department of Neurology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 Steven M. Rothman Departments of Pediatrics, Neurology, and Anatomy and Neurobiology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63 1 10 The human brain depends on its blood supply for a continuous supply of oxygen and glucose. Irreversible brain damage occurs if blood flow is reduced below about 10 ml/ lOO g tissue/min and if blood flow is completely interrupted, damage will occur in only a few minutes. Unfortunately, such reductions (ischemia) are common in disease states: either localized to individual vascular territories, as in stroke; or globally, as in cardiac arrest. Cerebral hypoxia can also occur in isolation, for example in respiratory arrest, carbon monoxide poisoning, or near-drowning; pure glucose depriÂ vation can occur in insulin overdose or a variety of metabolic disorders. As a group, these disorders are a leading cause of neurological disability and death; stroke alone is the third most common cause of death in North America. Despite its clinical importance, little is known about the cellular pathoÂ genesis of hypoxic-ischemic brain damage, and at present there is no effective therapy. A critical question has been why brain, more than most other tissues, is so
Annual Review of Neuroscience – Annual Reviews
Published: Mar 1, 1990
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