The Role of Glutamate Neurotoxicity in Hypoxic-Ischemic Neuronal Death

The Role of Glutamate Neurotoxicity in Hypoxic-Ischemic Neuronal Death Dennis W. Choi Department of Neurology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 Steven M. Rothman Departments of Pediatrics, Neurology, and Anatomy and Neurobiology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63 1 10 The human brain depends on its blood supply for a continuous supply of oxygen and glucose. Irreversible brain damage occurs if blood flow is reduced below about 10 ml/ lOO g tissue/min and if blood flow is completely interrupted, damage will occur in only a few minutes. Unfortunately, such reductions (ischemia) are common in disease states: either localized to individual vascular territories, as in stroke; or globally, as in cardiac arrest. Cerebral hypoxia can also occur in isolation, for example in respiratory arrest, carbon monoxide poisoning, or near-drowning; pure glucose depri­ vation can occur in insulin overdose or a variety of metabolic disorders. As a group, these disorders are a leading cause of neurological disability and death; stroke alone is the third most common cause of death in North America. Despite its clinical importance, little is known about the cellular patho­ genesis of hypoxic-ischemic brain damage, and at present there is no effective therapy. A critical question has been why brain, more than most other tissues, is so http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Annual Review of Neuroscience Annual Reviews

The Role of Glutamate Neurotoxicity in Hypoxic-Ischemic Neuronal Death

Annual Review of Neuroscience, Volume 13 (1) – Mar 1, 1990

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Publisher
Annual Reviews
Copyright
Copyright 1990 Annual Reviews. All rights reserved
Subject
Review Articles
ISSN
0147-006X
eISSN
1545-4126
D.O.I.
10.1146/annurev.ne.13.030190.001131
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Dennis W. Choi Department of Neurology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 Steven M. Rothman Departments of Pediatrics, Neurology, and Anatomy and Neurobiology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63 1 10 The human brain depends on its blood supply for a continuous supply of oxygen and glucose. Irreversible brain damage occurs if blood flow is reduced below about 10 ml/ lOO g tissue/min and if blood flow is completely interrupted, damage will occur in only a few minutes. Unfortunately, such reductions (ischemia) are common in disease states: either localized to individual vascular territories, as in stroke; or globally, as in cardiac arrest. Cerebral hypoxia can also occur in isolation, for example in respiratory arrest, carbon monoxide poisoning, or near-drowning; pure glucose depri­ vation can occur in insulin overdose or a variety of metabolic disorders. As a group, these disorders are a leading cause of neurological disability and death; stroke alone is the third most common cause of death in North America. Despite its clinical importance, little is known about the cellular patho­ genesis of hypoxic-ischemic brain damage, and at present there is no effective therapy. A critical question has been why brain, more than most other tissues, is so

Journal

Annual Review of NeuroscienceAnnual Reviews

Published: Mar 1, 1990

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