PERSPECTIVES AND SUMMARY When cultured cells or whole organisms are exposed to elevated temperatures, they respond by synthesizing a small number of highly conserved proteins, the heat-shock proteins, or hsps. This response is universal. It has been observed in every organism in which it has been sought, from eubacteria to archebacteria, from mice to soybeans. It is found in nearly every cell- and tissue-type of multicellular organ isms, in explanted tissues, and in cultured cells. It may be 0066-4154/86/0701-1151$02.00 LINDQUIST that some creature living in the depths of the ocean does not have a heat-shock response, but that is doubtful. The proteins are induced by a wide variety of other stresses, seem to have very general protective functions, and may well play a role in nonnal growth and development. Man has long studied the effects of heat on himself and other living things, but studies of the heat-shock response per se began in 1962 with the publication of a little-noticed paper describing a new set of puffs on the salivary gland chromosomes of a fruit fly,Drosophila busckii, puffs induced by heat, diÂ nitrophenol, or sodium salicylate (1). For the next decade the response was studied solely at the
Annual Review of Biochemistry – Annual Reviews
Published: Jul 1, 1986
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