The vast majority of synapses in the central nervous system appear to use excitatory amino acids (EAA)I as their neurotransmitters. Recent progress has greatly advanced our understanding of the properties of those receptors 'The following abbreviations have been used in the text; I3-L-ODAP, I3-N-uxalyl-L-a,l3diaminu-prupiunic acid; ACPD, Trans-l-aminu-cydupentyl-I,3-dicarbuxylate; AMPA, aÂ aminu-3-hydruxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-propionate; AP4, 2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate; AP5, 2-amino-5-phuphonovalerate; ASP, aspartate; CNQX, 6-cyano-7-nitro-quinoxaline-2,3-dione; CPP, 3-(2-earboxypiperazin-4-yl)prupyl- l -phosphate; cyelo-Leu, eydo-Ieucine; DAA, D-aÂ amino-adipate; DGG, y-D-glutamylglycine; DNQX, 6,7-dinitro-quinoxaline-2,3dione; EAA, excitatory amino acids; GABA, gamma-aminu-butyric acid; GDEE, glutamate diethyl ester; GLU, glutamate; GLY, glycine; HA-966, 3-amino-l -hydroxypyrrolidone-2; lBO, ibotenate; IP, inositol phosphate; KA, kainate; KYN, kynurenate; MK-801, dibenzoeyclohepteneimine; NMDA, N-methyl-D-aspartate; PCP, phencyclidine; QA, quisqualate; SER, serine; SOP, serineÂ O-phosphate; TCP, 1-[1-(2-thienyl)-eyclohexyIJpiperidine 0362- 1642/89/04 15-0365$02.00 MONAGHAN, BRIDGES & COTMAN serving synaptic transmission along these pathways. Perhaps not surprisingly, at least five receptors exist, all with significantly distinct functions. Three have been defined by the depolarizing actions of selective agonists (N-methylÂ D-aspartate, NMDA; kainate; quisqualate, or a-amino-3-hydroxy-SÂ methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid, AMPA) and their blockade by selective antagonists. A fourth, the AP4 receptor (L-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate), appears to represent an inhibitory autoreceptor. The fifth receptor, activated by trans-l-aminocyclopentane-l,3-dicarboxylic acid (ACPD) modifies inÂ ositol phosphate' (IP) metabolism. Excitatory transmission appears to involve actions
Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology – Annual Reviews
Published: Apr 1, 1989
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