The primary function of the retina is to detect light and to process visual images. Light is absorbed by photoreceptors, and its energy is transduced into electrical signals in the form of membrane hyperpolarization (165). Signals in rod and cone photoreceptors are transmitted to higher order retinal neurons through a complex and highly organized network of electrical and chemical synapses. Photoreceptors make electrical synapses with other photoreceptors nearby ( 12, 14, 22, 44, 47, 70, 134, 135), and they make chemical synapses on dendrites of second-order retinal neurons, the horiÂ zontal cells (HCs) and bipolar cells (BCs) (33, 56, 57, 59, 92, 98, 99, 165). Horizontal cells make feedback chemical synapse on cones (22, 121, 122, 186) and feedforward chemical synagse on bipolar cells (56, 57, 59, 201); they also make electrical synapses with other HCs (84, 172). Bipolar cells relay visual signals from the outer retina to the inner retina, where they make electrical synapses with other bipolar cells (95, 110, 173) and make chemical (and occasional electrical) synapses with amacrine cells and ganglion cells (33, 57, 59, 173, 177). Ganglion cells send retinal signals to the brain. Information processing in the retina is, in great part,
Annual Review of Physiology – Annual Reviews
Published: Mar 1, 1994
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