Many bacterial plant pathogens produce extracellular products that contribute to virulence (21). What constitutes an extracellular virulence factor? In prinÂ ciple, any molecule presented on the bacterial cell surface or translocated to the extracellular environment could act as a virulence determinant if it influÂ ences growth of the pathogen in planta. Loosely defined in this fashion, "extracellular" virulence factors include plant cell wall-degrading enzymes, toxins, DNA,hormones, siderophores, and signaling molecules (e.g. see 9, 15, 21, 27, 49, 50). Also, cell surface-anchored structures such as pili, flagella, lipopolysaccharide, exopolysaccharide slime layers, and outer membrane proÂ teins could have roles in bacterial survival within, or ingression of, the host plant (e.g. see 9, 18, 24). With such a broad definition of "extracellular" virulence factors it is not possible to cover the corresponding transport proÂ cesses involved in each case in this review. Consequently, I concentrate on a review of the secretion of a selection of molecules, particularly proteins, which are targeted totally outside of the bacterial cell, and will generally exclude discussion of the cell surface-anchored/associated structures, except in isolated cases. In addition, I concentrate exclusively on gram-negative bacterial plant 0066-4286/94/0901-0181$05. 00 SALMOND pathogens since little information is available on
Annual Review of Phytopathology – Annual Reviews
Published: Sep 1, 1994
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