Role of Dietary Proteins and Amino Acids in the Pathogenesis of Insulin Resistance

Role of Dietary Proteins and Amino Acids in the Pathogenesis of Insulin Resistance Abstract Dietary proteins and amino acids are important modulators of glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity. Although high intake of dietary proteins has positive effects on energy homeostasis by inducing satiety and possibly increasing energy expenditure, it has detrimental effects on glucose homeostasis by promoting insulin resistance and increasing gluconeogenesis. Varying the quality rather than the quantity of proteins has been shown to modulate insulin resistance induced by Western diets and has revealed that proteins derived from fish might have the most desirable effects on insulin sensitivity. In vitro and in vivo data also support an important role of amino acids in glucose homeostasis through modulation of insulin action on muscle glucose transport and hepatic glucose production, secretion of insulin and glucagon, as well as gene and protein expression in various tissues. Moreover, amino acid signaling is integrated by mammalian target of rapamycin, a nutrient sensor that operates a negative feedback loop toward insulin receptor substrate 1 signaling, promoting insulin resistance for glucose metabolism. This integration suggests that modulating dietary proteins and the flux of circulating amino acids generated by their consumption and digestion might underlie powerful new approaches to treat various metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Annual Review of Nutrition Annual Reviews

Role of Dietary Proteins and Amino Acids in the Pathogenesis of Insulin Resistance

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Publisher
Annual Reviews
Copyright
Copyright © 2007 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved
ISSN
0199-9885
eISSN
1545-4312
DOI
10.1146/annurev.nutr.25.050304.092545
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract Dietary proteins and amino acids are important modulators of glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity. Although high intake of dietary proteins has positive effects on energy homeostasis by inducing satiety and possibly increasing energy expenditure, it has detrimental effects on glucose homeostasis by promoting insulin resistance and increasing gluconeogenesis. Varying the quality rather than the quantity of proteins has been shown to modulate insulin resistance induced by Western diets and has revealed that proteins derived from fish might have the most desirable effects on insulin sensitivity. In vitro and in vivo data also support an important role of amino acids in glucose homeostasis through modulation of insulin action on muscle glucose transport and hepatic glucose production, secretion of insulin and glucagon, as well as gene and protein expression in various tissues. Moreover, amino acid signaling is integrated by mammalian target of rapamycin, a nutrient sensor that operates a negative feedback loop toward insulin receptor substrate 1 signaling, promoting insulin resistance for glucose metabolism. This integration suggests that modulating dietary proteins and the flux of circulating amino acids generated by their consumption and digestion might underlie powerful new approaches to treat various metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes.

Journal

Annual Review of NutritionAnnual Reviews

Published: Aug 21, 2007

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