Changes in the atmosphere impact a broad variety of ecosystem processes over a range of temporal and spatial scales (172). Several recent reviews provide detailed information on the observed and expected ecosystem-level responses to particular components of global change, or environmental forcing factors (EFFs), including increased atmospheric C02 (26, 77, 125, 170), * CIWDPB Publication Number: 1129 **The US government has the right to retain a nonexclusive, royalty-free license in and to any copyright covering this paper. FIELD ET AL increased temperature (159), acid precipitation (211,212), nutrient deposition (3, 176), tropospheric ozone (19),UV-B (52), and sulfur dioxide (252). Here, we focus on the effects of environmental forcing factors mediated through the atmosphere-changes in C02, temperature, pollutants, nutrient deposition, and radiation--on the function of terrestrial ecosystems, defining function as mass and energy exchange. To keep the topic manageable within the context of this brief review, we emphasize anthropogenic EFFs acting on the decade-to-century time scale, and we do not consider either direct effects on ecosystem structure and function from land use change (clearing, burning, fertilizer application, grazing, etc) or effects of nonanthropogenic EFFs (orbital variations, continental drift, etc) . We consider the impacts of past and projected future changes
Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics – Annual Reviews
Published: Nov 1, 1992
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