▪ Abstract Reactive oxygen intermediates are produced in all aerobic organisms during respiration and exist in the cell in a balance with biochemical antioxidants. Excess reactive oxygen resulting from exposure to environmental oxidants, toxicants, and heavy metals perturbs cellular redox balance and disrupts normal biological functions. The resulting imbalance may be detrimental to the organism and contribute to the pathogenesis of disease and aging. To counteract the oxidant effects and to restore a state of redox balance, cells must reset critical homeostatic parameters. Changes associated with oxidative damage and with restoration of cellular homeostasis often lead to activation or silencing of genes encoding regulatory transcription factors, antioxidant defense enzymes, and structural proteins. In this review, we examine the sources and generation of free radicals and oxidative stress in biological systems and the mechanisms used by reactive oxygen to modulate signal transduction cascades and redirect gene expression.
Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology – Annual Reviews
Published: Apr 1, 1999
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly
Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.
Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera