Programming of DNA Methylation Patterns

Programming of DNA Methylation Patterns DNA methylation represents a form of genome annotation that mediates gene repression by serving as a maintainable mark that can be used to reconstruct silent chromatin following each round of replication. During development, germline DNA methylation is erased in the blastocyst, and a bimodal pattern is established anew at the time of implantation when the entire genome gets methylated while CpG islands are protected. This brings about global repression and allows housekeeping genes to be expressed in all cells of the body. Postimplantation development is characterized by stage- and tissue-specific changes in methylation that ultimately mold the epigenetic patterns that define each individual cell type. This is directed by sequence information in DNA and represents a secondary event that provides long-term expression stability. Abnormal methylation changes play a role in diseases, such as cancer or fragile X syndrome, and may also occur as a function of aging or as a result of environmental influences. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Annual Review of Biochemistry Annual Reviews

Programming of DNA Methylation Patterns

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Publisher
Annual Reviews
Copyright
Copyright © 2012 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved
ISSN
0066-4154
eISSN
1545-4509
D.O.I.
10.1146/annurev-biochem-052610-091920
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

DNA methylation represents a form of genome annotation that mediates gene repression by serving as a maintainable mark that can be used to reconstruct silent chromatin following each round of replication. During development, germline DNA methylation is erased in the blastocyst, and a bimodal pattern is established anew at the time of implantation when the entire genome gets methylated while CpG islands are protected. This brings about global repression and allows housekeeping genes to be expressed in all cells of the body. Postimplantation development is characterized by stage- and tissue-specific changes in methylation that ultimately mold the epigenetic patterns that define each individual cell type. This is directed by sequence information in DNA and represents a secondary event that provides long-term expression stability. Abnormal methylation changes play a role in diseases, such as cancer or fragile X syndrome, and may also occur as a function of aging or as a result of environmental influences.

Journal

Annual Review of BiochemistryAnnual Reviews

Published: Jul 7, 2012

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