281 0066-4 1 54/91/0701 -0281$02 . 00 HERSCHMAN SUMMARY AND PERSPECTIVES All nucleated eukaryotic cells exhibit ligand-induced, transcription-dependent changes in phenotype. Even the single-celled yeasts respond to polypeptide mating factors by alterations in cellular proliferation and mating capability that are dependent on receptor-mediated transcriptional activation . In multiÂ cellular organisms , individual cells constantly respond to a complex environÂ ment in which gene expression and 'consequent cellular phenotype are mediÂ ated by ligands such as growth factors , peptide hormones, neurotransmitters, antigens , morphogens, and other hydrophilic agents that bind to cell-surface, transmembrane receptors . Researchers studying areaï¿½ as seemingly diverse as mitogenesis, endocrinology, immunology, neurobiology, and developmental biology are all confronted with a similar set of questions: How is the informaÂ tion that a ligand-receptor interaction has occurred at the cell surface transmitÂ ted across the membrane? What are the intracellular mechanisms that relay, from the membrane to the nucleus, the information that a cell-surface, ligand-receptor interaction has occurred? What genes are influenced as a result of this new information, and how is their expression selectively modÂ ulated? What are the roles of these new gene products, expressed in response to ligand-receptor interaction, in effecting the subsequent
Annual Review of Biochemistry – Annual Reviews
Published: Jul 1, 1991
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