Nitric Oxide Synthases: Properties and Catalytic Mechanism

Nitric Oxide Synthases: Properties and Catalytic Mechanism Historical Perspective Although nitric oxide (NO)3 was known since the late 1970s to be among the ligands that activate soluble guanylyl cyclase and cause vascular smooth mus­ cle relaxation (4, 21, 44), it was not appreciated until more recently that NO is also an endogenous vasorelaxant. In 1986, Furchgott (33) and Ignarro (56) noted that NO and endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) (32, 34) com­ parably relax vascular smooth muscle and are similarly quenched by hemo­ globin and superoxide. They proposed that EDRF is NO (33, 56) or a labile compound releasing NO (56). A variety of biological and pharmacological 3Abbreviations used: NO, nitric oxide; EDRF. endothelium-derived relaxing factor; EPR. electron paramagnetic resonance; NMDA.N-methyl-Daspartate; NOS. nitric oxide synthase; eNOS. ecNOS. NOS-III, endothelial constitutive isoform of NOS-; nNOS, ncNOS. bNOS. NOS-I. neuronal (brain) constitutive isoform of NOS; iNOS, mNOS. macNOS. NOS-II. Ca2+ elevation-independent, inducible isoform of NOS; THB, tetrahydrobiopterin; NOH-ARG. N!l)-hydroxY-L-arginine; L· SMTC. S-methyl-L-thiocitrulline; L-NMA. �-methyl-L-arginine; L-NNA. N!l)-nitro-L-arginine; CaM. calmodulin; LPS.lipopolysaccharide; NANC. non-adrenergic. non-cholinergic; ROS. reac- tive oxygen species; D-NMA. N!l)-methyl-o-arginine; o-NNA. �-nitro-D-arginine; L-NAME. N!l)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester; L-NAA. �-amino-L-arginine; L-NIO. �-iminoethyl- L-omithine. 707 0066-4278/95/0315-0707$05.00 GRIFFITH & STUEHR studies confirmed this conclusion with respect to NO (55, 108, 109; reviews 54, http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Annual Review of Physiology Annual Reviews

Nitric Oxide Synthases: Properties and Catalytic Mechanism

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Abstract

Historical Perspective Although nitric oxide (NO)3 was known since the late 1970s to be among the ligands that activate soluble guanylyl cyclase and cause vascular smooth mus­ cle relaxation (4, 21, 44), it was not appreciated until more recently that NO is also an endogenous vasorelaxant. In 1986, Furchgott (33) and Ignarro (56) noted that NO and endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) (32, 34) com­ parably relax vascular smooth muscle and are similarly quenched by hemo­ globin and superoxide. They proposed that EDRF is NO (33, 56) or a labile compound releasing NO (56). A variety of biological and pharmacological 3Abbreviations used: NO, nitric oxide; EDRF. endothelium-derived relaxing factor; EPR. electron paramagnetic resonance; NMDA.N-methyl-Daspartate; NOS. nitric oxide synthase; eNOS. ecNOS. NOS-III, endothelial constitutive isoform of NOS-; nNOS, ncNOS. bNOS. NOS-I. neuronal (brain) constitutive isoform of NOS; iNOS, mNOS. macNOS. NOS-II. Ca2+ elevation-independent, inducible isoform of NOS; THB, tetrahydrobiopterin; NOH-ARG. N!l)-hydroxY-L-arginine; L· SMTC. S-methyl-L-thiocitrulline; L-NMA. �-methyl-L-arginine; L-NNA. N!l)-nitro-L-arginine; CaM. calmodulin; LPS.lipopolysaccharide; NANC. non-adrenergic. non-cholinergic; ROS. reac- tive oxygen species; D-NMA. N!l)-methyl-o-arginine; o-NNA. �-nitro-D-arginine; L-NAME. N!l)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester; L-NAA. �-amino-L-arginine; L-NIO. �-iminoethyl- L-omithine. 707 0066-4278/95/0315-0707$05.00 GRIFFITH & STUEHR studies confirmed this conclusion with respect to NO (55, 108, 109; reviews 54,

Journal

Annual Review of PhysiologyAnnual Reviews

Published: Mar 1, 1995

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