It has been known for many years that neurons and glia can accumulate neurotransmitters by a sodium dependent cotransport process that is, in many respects, similar to systems present in most cells for concentrating metabolites. By cotransporting a solute with sodium, the energy stored in transmembrane electrochemical gradients can be used to drive the solute into the cell (reviewed in Kanner & Schuldiner 1987; Trendelenburg 1991). A special appreciation of the neurotransmitter cotransport systems has devcIoped from studies, which indicate the existence of multiple uptake systems, each relatively selective for a specific neurotransmitter. Table I presents a list of brain uptake systems that have been identified. These transport activities are localized within the synaptic membranes of neurons that use the same transmitter and are probably the most important mechÂ anism for terminating synaptic transmission. Many of these transporters I The US government has the right to retain a nonexclusive, royalty-free license in and to any copyright covering this paper. AMARA & KUHAR Table 1 Neurotransmitter (candidates) have high affinity transport systems Dopamine Norepinephrine Serotonin Glutamate Aspartate GABA Glycine Taurine Proline Adenosine or reuptake systems have been implicated as important sites for drug action. The augmentation of synaptic activity
Annual Review of Neuroscience – Annual Reviews
Published: Mar 1, 1993
Keywords: neurotransmitter reuptake; synaptic signal termination; uptake
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