Annual Reviews www.annualreviews.org/aronline NEUROTRANSMITTER RELEASE mouth of the channel and the calcium sensor for vesicle fusion is 4 0 nm, diffusion models predict that [Caz+]at the sensor would rise within microseconds to levels approaching 100 pM or higher. Similar concentrations can also be achieved at somewhat greater distances if calcium channels form clusters rm that allow summation of the calcium contributions f o individual channels. Because microdomains of high Caz+are so tiny, conventional calcium imaging techniques are unable to detect them. However, Llinhs et a1 (1992) were able to visualize microdomains directly in the squid giant synapse by injecting into the presynaptic terminal a calciumdependent photoprotein. n-aequorin-J, which has reduced sensitivity to Ca*+.During presynaptic action potentials, punctate flashes of light were observed, localized to regions that probably correspond to presynaptic active zones. Because n-aequorin-J produces light only at high concentrations of Caz+,the light flashes correspond to regions where action potentials elevated [CaZ+],to levels estimated by Llinhs et a1 (1992) to exceed 100 pM. CALCIUM DEPENDENCE OF EXOCYTOSIS IN SYNAPTIC TERMINALS Several lines of evidence indicate that the calcium concentration necessary to drive exocytosis in synaptic terminals corresponds to the high levels expected near the inner mouth of open
Annual Review of Neuroscience – Annual Reviews
Published: Mar 1, 1996
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