The term "waterfowl" refers collectively to members of the family AnatidaeÂ ducks, geese, and swans. Waterfowl have been referred to as "the most promiÂ nent and e:conomically important group of migratory birds in North America" (24). The breeding distributions of the 45 species of waterfowl that are native breeders in North America range from the southern United States to Alaska and the Canadian arctic (7). As suggested by the term "waterfowl," wetlands are an essential habitat component for these species throughout their ranges. Most NOI1th American species are migratory, breeding in the northern United States andl Canada during the spring and summer and migrating along tradiÂ tional pathways to wintering grounds in the United States and, for some species, Mexico and even Central and South America. The prairies of northÂ central United States and south-central Canada are an extremely important breeding area for many duck species, whereas many goose and swan species breed fartlher north in Alaska and the Canadian arctic. Waterfowl hunting and associated management efforts have a long history in North America. This history has been closely linked with scientific invesÂ tigations of waterfowl ecology that have guided waterfowl management over the years. Monitoring programs were
Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics – Annual Reviews
Published: Nov 1, 1995
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