Landscape Ecology: The Effect of Pattern on Process

Landscape Ecology: The Effect of Pattern on Process A Historical Perspective Ecology and natural history have a long tradition of interest in the spatial patterning and geographic distribution of organisms. The latitudinal and altitudinal distribution of vegetative zones was described by Von Humboldt (154) , whose work provided a major impetus to studies of the geographic distribution of plants and animals (74) . Throughout the nineteenth century, botanists and zoologists described the spatial distributions of various taxa, particularly as they related to macroclimatic factors such as temperature and precipitation (e.g. 21, 82, 83, 156). The emerging view was that strong interdependencies among climate, biota, and soil lead to long-term stability of the landscape in the absence of climatic changes (95). The early biogeog­ raphical studies also influenced Clements' theory of successional dynamics, in which a stable endpoint, the climax vegetation, was determined by mac­ roclimate over a broad region ing. Gleason (14, 15). Clements stressed temporal dynamics but did not emphasize spatial pattern­ (36-38) argued that spatially heterogeneous patterns were im­ portant and should be interpreted as individualistic responses to spatial gra­ dients in the environment. The development of gradient analysis (e.g. 17, 164) allowed description of the continuous distribution of species along environmental gradients. Abrupt http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics Annual Reviews

Landscape Ecology: The Effect of Pattern on Process

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Publisher
Annual Reviews
Copyright
Copyright 1989 Annual Reviews. All rights reserved
Subject
Review Articles
ISSN
0066-4162
D.O.I.
10.1146/annurev.es.20.110189.001131
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

A Historical Perspective Ecology and natural history have a long tradition of interest in the spatial patterning and geographic distribution of organisms. The latitudinal and altitudinal distribution of vegetative zones was described by Von Humboldt (154) , whose work provided a major impetus to studies of the geographic distribution of plants and animals (74) . Throughout the nineteenth century, botanists and zoologists described the spatial distributions of various taxa, particularly as they related to macroclimatic factors such as temperature and precipitation (e.g. 21, 82, 83, 156). The emerging view was that strong interdependencies among climate, biota, and soil lead to long-term stability of the landscape in the absence of climatic changes (95). The early biogeog­ raphical studies also influenced Clements' theory of successional dynamics, in which a stable endpoint, the climax vegetation, was determined by mac­ roclimate over a broad region ing. Gleason (14, 15). Clements stressed temporal dynamics but did not emphasize spatial pattern­ (36-38) argued that spatially heterogeneous patterns were im­ portant and should be interpreted as individualistic responses to spatial gra­ dients in the environment. The development of gradient analysis (e.g. 17, 164) allowed description of the continuous distribution of species along environmental gradients. Abrupt

Journal

Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and SystematicsAnnual Reviews

Published: Nov 1, 1989

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