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Hydrophobicity of Proteins and Interfaces: Insights from Density Fluctuations

Hydrophobicity of Proteins and Interfaces: Insights from Density Fluctuations Macroscopic characterizations of hydrophobicity (e.g., contact angle measurements) do not extend to the surfaces of proteins and nanoparticles. Molecular measures of hydrophobicity of such surfaces need to account for the behavior of hydration water. Theory and state-of-the-art simulations suggest that water density fluctuations provide such a measure; fluctuations are enhanced near hydrophobic surfaces and quenched with increasing surface hydrophilicity. Fluctuations affect conformational equilibria and dynamics of molecules at interfaces. Enhanced fluctuations are reflected in enhanced cavity formation, more favorable binding of hydrophobic solutes, increased compressibility of hydration water, and enhanced water-water correlations at hydrophobic surfaces. These density fluctuation–based measures can be used to develop practical methods to map the hydrophobicity/philicity of heterogeneous surfaces including those of proteins. They highlight that the hydrophobicity of a group is context dependent and is significantly affected by its environment (e.g., chemistry and topography) and especially by confinement. The ability to include information about hydration water in mapping hydrophobicity is expected to significantly impact our understanding of protein-protein interactions as well as improve drug design and discovery methods and bioseparation processes. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Annual Reviews

Hydrophobicity of Proteins and Interfaces: Insights from Density Fluctuations

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Publisher
Annual Reviews
Copyright
Copyright © 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved
ISSN
1947-5438
eISSN
1947-5446
DOI
10.1146/annurev-chembioeng-061010-114156
pmid
22432614
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Macroscopic characterizations of hydrophobicity (e.g., contact angle measurements) do not extend to the surfaces of proteins and nanoparticles. Molecular measures of hydrophobicity of such surfaces need to account for the behavior of hydration water. Theory and state-of-the-art simulations suggest that water density fluctuations provide such a measure; fluctuations are enhanced near hydrophobic surfaces and quenched with increasing surface hydrophilicity. Fluctuations affect conformational equilibria and dynamics of molecules at interfaces. Enhanced fluctuations are reflected in enhanced cavity formation, more favorable binding of hydrophobic solutes, increased compressibility of hydration water, and enhanced water-water correlations at hydrophobic surfaces. These density fluctuation–based measures can be used to develop practical methods to map the hydrophobicity/philicity of heterogeneous surfaces including those of proteins. They highlight that the hydrophobicity of a group is context dependent and is significantly affected by its environment (e.g., chemistry and topography) and especially by confinement. The ability to include information about hydration water in mapping hydrophobicity is expected to significantly impact our understanding of protein-protein interactions as well as improve drug design and discovery methods and bioseparation processes.

Journal

Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular EngineeringAnnual Reviews

Published: Jul 15, 2011

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