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Heterokaryosis and Variability in Plant-Pathogenic Fungi

of the concept of heterokaryosis in fungi, the term has been used to designate a vegetative condition. Indeed, Beadle & Coonradt (20), and Sansome (21) suggest that in Neurospora crassa like mating types form heterokaryons, whereas unlike mating types do not. The distinction is important in that nuclear recombination through a sexual stage produced in mixed cultures is not in itself a demonstration of heterokaryosis. Where heterokaryotic cells exist in a thallus, several patterns of nuclear association are evident. In many Basidiomycetes, the normal vegetative mycelium is dikaryotic throughout and therefore heterokaryotic throughout in all heterothallic forms. In Rhizoctonia solani the vegetative cells are normally multinucleate (22 to 25), and in heterokaryotic thalli most of the cells appear to be heterokaryotic (26). The mechanism of conjugate division appears to conserve heterokaryosis in the cells of basidiomycete thalli, and except for special circumstances to be considered shortly, heterokaryosis ap­ pears to be very stable. In contrast to the Basidiomycetes, most Ascomycetes and imperfect fungi that have been investigated have shown less regular nuclear condition. Hyphal cells may be predominately multinucleate (11, 27 to 32), uni- or bi­ nucleate with multinucleate tip cells (33 to 36), uninucleate throughout (19, 28, http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Annual Review of Phytopathology Annual Reviews
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