Frazil ice is the terminology for small discs of ice measuring 1-4 mm in diameter and 1-100 /Lm in thickness that form in turbulent, slightly supercooled water (Kivisild 1970). Because of the surface properties of these discs, once they form, they rapidly aggregate together and adhere to foreign material in the water. In rivers these crystals, which form at rapids and other areas of open water where their production rate can be as large as 106 m3 day-I, cause serious problems with hydroelectric facilities. These problems include the reduction of available head by 25%, the blocking of turbine intakes, the blockage of hydroelectric reservoirs, and the freezing open of gates. Because of the economic importance of these problems, river frazil ice is the subject of many papers. Recent reviews of river frazil ice include Michel's (1971) comprehensive survey, Osterkamp (1978), and Ashton Proceedings on Ice Problems of the International AssociÂ ation for Hydraulic Research (Int. Assoc. H ydraul. Res. 1970, 1975, 1978) (1978). Also, the ice, much of which is relevant to the frazil crystal. In the ocean, frazil ice forms during winter both at the ice edge and in contain many excellent papers on frazil ice. Finally,
Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics – Annual Reviews
Published: Jan 1, 1981
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