Frazil Ice in Rivers and Oceans

Frazil Ice in Rivers and Oceans Frazil ice is the terminology for small discs of ice measuring 1-4 mm in diameter and 1-100 /Lm in thickness that form in turbulent, slightly supercooled water (Kivisild 1970). Because of the surface properties of these discs, once they form, they rapidly aggregate together and adhere to foreign material in the water. In rivers these crystals, which form at rapids and other areas of open water where their production rate can be as large as 106 m3 day-I, cause serious problems with hydroelectric facilities. These problems include the reduction of available head by 25%, the blocking of turbine intakes, the blockage of hydroelectric reservoirs, and the freezing open of gates. Because of the economic importance of these problems, river frazil ice is the subject of many papers. Recent reviews of river frazil ice include Michel's (1971) comprehensive survey, Osterkamp (1978), and Ashton Proceedings on Ice Problems of the International Associ­ ation for Hydraulic Research (Int. Assoc. H ydraul. Res. 1970, 1975, 1978) (1978). Also, the ice, much of which is relevant to the frazil crystal. In the ocean, frazil ice forms during winter both at the ice edge and in contain many excellent papers on frazil ice. Finally, http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics Annual Reviews

Frazil Ice in Rivers and Oceans

Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics, Volume 13 (1) – Jan 1, 1981

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Publisher
Annual Reviews
Copyright
Copyright 1981 Annual Reviews. All rights reserved
Subject
Review Articles
ISSN
0066-4189
eISSN
1545-4479
DOI
10.1146/annurev.fl.13.010181.002115
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Frazil ice is the terminology for small discs of ice measuring 1-4 mm in diameter and 1-100 /Lm in thickness that form in turbulent, slightly supercooled water (Kivisild 1970). Because of the surface properties of these discs, once they form, they rapidly aggregate together and adhere to foreign material in the water. In rivers these crystals, which form at rapids and other areas of open water where their production rate can be as large as 106 m3 day-I, cause serious problems with hydroelectric facilities. These problems include the reduction of available head by 25%, the blocking of turbine intakes, the blockage of hydroelectric reservoirs, and the freezing open of gates. Because of the economic importance of these problems, river frazil ice is the subject of many papers. Recent reviews of river frazil ice include Michel's (1971) comprehensive survey, Osterkamp (1978), and Ashton Proceedings on Ice Problems of the International Associ­ ation for Hydraulic Research (Int. Assoc. H ydraul. Res. 1970, 1975, 1978) (1978). Also, the ice, much of which is relevant to the frazil crystal. In the ocean, frazil ice forms during winter both at the ice edge and in contain many excellent papers on frazil ice. Finally,

Journal

Annual Review of Fluid MechanicsAnnual Reviews

Published: Jan 1, 1981

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