of biological control agents has often been declared to be environmentally safe and risk free (4, 7, 17, 23, 28, 59, 72, 82, 126). However, adequate data to defend this assertion on safety have not been systematically gathered. In 1899, David Sharp (114) wrote to L. O. Howard concerning Koebele's program of importing biological control agents into Hawaii: It is important that a pennanent record shall be secured of what Mr. Koebele has done in matters that may affect the fauna, and we shall be much obliged if you will draw up a statement as full as you can on these points. Mr. Koebele is actually making a huge biological experiment, and the particulars should be fully recorded, though it must be very long before the results can be at all accurately estimated. Unfortunately, Sharp's advice has not been heeded, as few workers have studied the effects of purposefully introduced species on nontarget organisms or other aspects of the environment (75, 76). The limited information on the environmental impacts of biological control is scattered within the control and ecological literature or remains unpublished or, worse, ungathered. Often, different names have been used for the same organism, making comparisons
Annual Review of Entomology – Annual Reviews
Published: Jan 1, 1991
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