Control of Protein Exit from the Endoplasmic Reticulum

Control of Protein Exit from the Endoplasmic Reticulum The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the largest membrane-bound organelle in a typical eukaryotic cell. It consists of a continuous network of tubules and cisternae extending throughout the cytoplasm, with a total surface 0743-4634/89/1115-0001$02.00 PELHAM area at least six times that of the plasma membrane. Most of the ER membrane is studded with ribosomes (thus forming the rough endoplasmic reticulum, or RER). Membrane and secretory proteins are synthesized on these ribosomes and enter the ER, which is the starting point for the secretory pathway; such proteins spend only a short time in this organelle before being transported, by a process of vesicle budding and fusion, to the Golgi apparatus and thence to the cell surface (Palade 1975). The ER membrane and the lumen that it encloses also contain a characteristic set of resident proteins that are involved in the processing of secretory proteins and in other metabolic functions such as phospholipid biosynthesis. Thus, export of newly synthesized polypeptides from the ER involves the separa­ tion of secretory proteins from resident proteins. In this article I discuss the mechanisms involved in this sorting process. Several other recent reviews have also covered this area (Pfeffer & Rothman 1 987; Rothman 1987; http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology Annual Reviews

Control of Protein Exit from the Endoplasmic Reticulum

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Publisher
Annual Reviews
Copyright
Copyright 1989 Annual Reviews. All rights reserved
Subject
Review Articles
ISSN
1081-0706
eISSN
1530-8995
D.O.I.
10.1146/annurev.cb.05.110189.000245
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the largest membrane-bound organelle in a typical eukaryotic cell. It consists of a continuous network of tubules and cisternae extending throughout the cytoplasm, with a total surface 0743-4634/89/1115-0001$02.00 PELHAM area at least six times that of the plasma membrane. Most of the ER membrane is studded with ribosomes (thus forming the rough endoplasmic reticulum, or RER). Membrane and secretory proteins are synthesized on these ribosomes and enter the ER, which is the starting point for the secretory pathway; such proteins spend only a short time in this organelle before being transported, by a process of vesicle budding and fusion, to the Golgi apparatus and thence to the cell surface (Palade 1975). The ER membrane and the lumen that it encloses also contain a characteristic set of resident proteins that are involved in the processing of secretory proteins and in other metabolic functions such as phospholipid biosynthesis. Thus, export of newly synthesized polypeptides from the ER involves the separa­ tion of secretory proteins from resident proteins. In this article I discuss the mechanisms involved in this sorting process. Several other recent reviews have also covered this area (Pfeffer & Rothman 1 987; Rothman 1987;

Journal

Annual Review of Cell and Developmental BiologyAnnual Reviews

Published: Nov 1, 1989

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