The composition of extracellular materials interacting with the cell surface has important regulatory and structural consequences for cells, and an extensive literature now documents these biological roles (reviewed in 1-9). Several dramatic examples show the regulation of cell morphology, cytoskeletal organization, and even cell type by purified extracellular macromolecules. Treatment by purified cellular fibronectin of oncogeniÂ cally transformed cells originally deficient in fibronectin can restore normal cell shape, adhesiveness, cell surface morphology, and actin microfilament organization (13-15); similarly, dissociated epithelial cells cease blebbing and reorganize cortical microfilaments after treatment with purified fibronectin, laminin, or collagen (16). Exposure of cartilage chondrocytes to purified cellular fibronectin alters their morphology and patterns of biosynthesis, causing a reversion from chondrocyte-specific synthesis of type II collagen and proteoglycans to a mesenchymal-cell pattern ( 1 7, 1 8). A particularly striking change was obsï¿½rved when fully differentiated epiÂ thelial cells were cultured within a gel of purified collagen. The cells underwent a fundamental alteration in phenotype from epithelial to mesenchymal cell ( 1 9). This alteration was accompanied by major changes in cell interactions and morphology, so that cells migrate away from epithelial sheets to form isolated bipolar cells that can invade collagen gels
Annual Review of Biochemistry – Annual Reviews
Published: Jul 1, 1983
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