Opiates are among the oldest pharmacological substances known to man; their analgesic, euphoric, and addictive effects have been traditional focal points for opiate research. Without doubt, the cardiovascular effects of opiates have also been apparent to the user or abuser of opiate substances for several centuries. Persons seeking analgesic, euphoric, or antidiarrheal actions from opiate alkaloids have probably noted dizziness upon sudden st,anding due to the orthostatic hypotension these substances produce. HisÂ torically, however, scientific study on the cardiovascular responses to adÂ ministered opiates has lagged behind other areas of opiate research. This is understandable as, relative to doses required for their analgesic actions in humans, the cardiovascular effects of opiates are less noticeable and, indeed, undesirable. Early studies established that cardiovascular responses to morphine varÂ ied among species; both autonomic and histamine-releasing properties conÂ tributed to their hypotensive and bradycardic actions (1-5). Generally speaking, morphine was shown to produce prominent effects upon brainÂ stem and hypothalamic centers that resulted in increased parasympathetic and decreased sympathetic tone (3-6). These effects upon autonomic outÂ flow caused a depression of both heart rate and blood pressure. A resurgence of interest in opiate-cardiovascular interactions followed the discovery of endogenous opiate systems
Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology – Annual Reviews
Published: Apr 1, 1983
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly
Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.
Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera