Three different lines of research and three entirely different observations have led to the discovery of the insulin-like growth factors (IGFs). In 1957, Salmon & Daughaday carried out an important experiment (44). They observed that serum stimulated the incorporation of 35S into incubated cartilage. Serum of hypophysectomized rats was devoid of this sulfation activity. It could not be reconstituted by addition of growth hormone to the incubation medium but reappeared after administration of growth hormone to hypophysectomized rats (44). These observations led Daughaday to postulate that growth hormone itself does not stimulate growth processes in vitro and in vivo, but rather induces the formation of factors that mediate the message of growth hormone. These factors-first called sulfation factors, later somaÂ tomedins-Iead to sulfation of cartilage in vitro, which reflects growth in vivo. As we shall see, this hypothesis has been proven to be valid. Most cultured cells need serum to grow. Several growth factors in serum are responsible for growth-promoting effects, an aspect that will be discussed below in more detail. In 1972, Pierson & Temin extracted factors from serum, which they called multiplication-stimulating activity (MSA) (37). These facÂ tors had molecular weights below 10,000. When added to
Annual Review of Physiology – Annual Reviews
Published: Mar 1, 1985
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