AbstractTwo methods for deriving relationships between the equivalent radar reflectivity factor (Ze) and the snowfall rate (S) at three radar wavelengths are described. The first method uses collocations of in situ aircraft (microphysical observations) and overflying aircraft (radar observations) from two field programs to develop Ze–S relationships. In the second method, measurements of Ze at the top of the melting layer (ML), from radars on the Tropical Rain Measuring Mission (TRMM), Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM), and CloudSat satellites, are related to the retrieved rainfall rate R at the base of the ML, assuming that the mass flux through the ML is constant. Retrievals of R are likely to be more reliable than S because far fewer assumptions are involved in the retrieval and because supporting ground-based validation data are available.The Ze–S relationships developed here for the collocations and the mass-flux technique are compared to those derived from level 2 retrievals from the standard satellite products and to a number of relationships developed and reported by others. It is shown that there are substantial differences among them. The relationships developed here promise improvements in snowfall-rate retrievals from satellite-based radar measurements.
Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology – American Meteorological Society
Published: Feb 14, 2018
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