The Character and Causes of Elevation-Dependent Warming in High-Resolution Simulations of Rocky Mountain Climate Change

The Character and Causes of Elevation-Dependent Warming in High-Resolution Simulations of Rocky... AbstractThe character and causes of elevation-dependent warming (EDW) of surface temperatures are examined in a suite of high-resolution ( km) regional climate model (RCM) simulations of climate change over the Rocky Mountains using the Weather Research and Forecasting Model. A clear EDW signal is found over the region, with warming enhanced in certain elevation bands by as much as 2°C. During some months warming maximizes at middle elevations, whereas during others it increases monotonically with elevation or is nearly independent of elevation. Simulated EDW is primarily caused by the snow albedo feedback (SAF). Warming maximizes in regions of maximum snow loss and albedo reduction. The role of the SAF is confirmed by sensitivity experiments wherein the SAF is artificially suppressed. The elevation dependence of free-tropospheric warming appears to play a secondary role in shaping EDW. No evidence is found for a contribution from elevation-dependent water vapor feedbacks. Sensitivity experiments show that EDW depends strongly on certain aspects of RCM configuration. Simulations using 4- and 12-km horizontal grid spacings show similar EDW signals, but substantial differences are found when using a grid spacing of 36 km due to the influence of terrain resolution on snow cover and the SAF. Simulations using the Noah and Noah-MP land surface models (LSMs) exhibit large differences in EDW. These are caused by differences between LSMs in their representations of midelevation snow extent and in their parameterization of subpixel fractional snow cover. These lead to albedo differences that act to modulate the simulated SAF and its effect on EDW. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Journal of Climate American Meteorological Society

The Character and Causes of Elevation-Dependent Warming in High-Resolution Simulations of Rocky Mountain Climate Change

Loading next page...
 
/lp/ams/the-character-and-causes-of-elevation-dependent-warming-in-high-RzeREv0IO6
Publisher
American Meteorological Society
Copyright
Copyright © American Meteorological Society
ISSN
1520-0442
D.O.I.
10.1175/JCLI-D-17-0321.1
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

AbstractThe character and causes of elevation-dependent warming (EDW) of surface temperatures are examined in a suite of high-resolution ( km) regional climate model (RCM) simulations of climate change over the Rocky Mountains using the Weather Research and Forecasting Model. A clear EDW signal is found over the region, with warming enhanced in certain elevation bands by as much as 2°C. During some months warming maximizes at middle elevations, whereas during others it increases monotonically with elevation or is nearly independent of elevation. Simulated EDW is primarily caused by the snow albedo feedback (SAF). Warming maximizes in regions of maximum snow loss and albedo reduction. The role of the SAF is confirmed by sensitivity experiments wherein the SAF is artificially suppressed. The elevation dependence of free-tropospheric warming appears to play a secondary role in shaping EDW. No evidence is found for a contribution from elevation-dependent water vapor feedbacks. Sensitivity experiments show that EDW depends strongly on certain aspects of RCM configuration. Simulations using 4- and 12-km horizontal grid spacings show similar EDW signals, but substantial differences are found when using a grid spacing of 36 km due to the influence of terrain resolution on snow cover and the SAF. Simulations using the Noah and Noah-MP land surface models (LSMs) exhibit large differences in EDW. These are caused by differences between LSMs in their representations of midelevation snow extent and in their parameterization of subpixel fractional snow cover. These lead to albedo differences that act to modulate the simulated SAF and its effect on EDW.

Journal

Journal of ClimateAmerican Meteorological Society

Published: Mar 17, 2018

References

You’re reading a free preview. Subscribe to read the entire article.


DeepDyve is your
personal research library

It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.

Enjoy affordable access to
over 12 million articles from more than
10,000 peer-reviewed journals.

All for just $49/month

Explore the DeepDyve Library

Unlimited reading

Read as many articles as you need. Full articles with original layout, charts and figures. Read online, from anywhere.

Stay up to date

Keep up with your field with Personalized Recommendations and Follow Journals to get automatic updates.

Organize your research

It’s easy to organize your research with our built-in tools.

Your journals are on DeepDyve

Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.

All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.

See the journals in your area

Monthly Plan

  • Read unlimited articles
  • Personalized recommendations
  • No expiration
  • Print 20 pages per month
  • 20% off on PDF purchases
  • Organize your research
  • Get updates on your journals and topic searches

$49/month

Start Free Trial

14-day Free Trial

Best Deal — 39% off

Annual Plan

  • All the features of the Professional Plan, but for 39% off!
  • Billed annually
  • No expiration
  • For the normal price of 10 articles elsewhere, you get one full year of unlimited access to articles.

$588

$360/year

billed annually
Start Free Trial

14-day Free Trial