Ozon e Hole ove r South Pole Expands systems tests that validate the ability of the integrated A complete loss of ozone between the altitude of spacecraft to withstand the harsh environment of space 14 and 20.5 km (9-13 miles) was observed by NOAA and to work with its ground system. Following that, scientists at the South Pole. This is the broadest region the spacecraft will be delivered to Vandenberg Air and highest altitude in which complete ozone destruc- Force Base, California, for launch processing. tion has been observed during the Antarctic springtime The spacecraft is being assembled and tested by ozone hole period to date. Lockheed Martin at its Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, David Hofmann, director of NOAA's Climate production facility. Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory, speculated The EOS series spacecraft are the cornerstone of that the extension in altitude of total depletion is due NASA's Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) enterprise, to continued increases of stratospheric chlorine from a long-term coordinated research effort to study the human-induced CFCs. earth as a global system and the effects of natural and While chlorine-containing gases have begun to de- human-induced changes on the global environment. cline in the lower atmosphere due to restrictions placed EOS AM-1 will use this unique perspective from space on them by the Montreal Protocol and its subsequent to observe the earth's continents, oceans, and atmo- amendments, it will take some time for chlorine to sphere with five state-of-the-art instruments with mea- disappear from the stratosphere. However, the expec- surement capability and accuracy never flown before, tation is that chlorine levels in the upper atmosphere according to NASA scientists. This unique approach will peak near the turn of the century, resulting in the enables scientists to study the interactions among these slow recovery of the ozone layer. three components of the earth system, which determine Balloon soundings at the South Pole indicate that the cycling of water and nutrients on earth. total column ozone reached a minimum of 112 Dob- "EOS AM-1 will study simultaneously clouds, wa- son units on 8 October. This is similar to what spring- ter vapor, aerosol, particles, trace gases, terrestrial and time minimum readings have been in the past few oceanic properties, the interaction between them, and years, indicating that large changes in the magnitude their effect on atmospheric radiation and climate," said of springtime Antarctic ozone depletion are not Yoram Kaufman, EOS AM-1 project scientist. "More- occurring. over, EOS AM-1 will observe changes in the earth's radiation energy budget, together with measurements Observations from instruments aboard a NOAA sat- of changes in land-ocean surface and interaction with ellite indicate that the size of the Antarctic ozone hole approached 22 million square kilometers in early Oc- the atmosphere through exchanges of energy, carbon, tober. This is comparable to the recent size as observed and water. Clearly comprehending these interactive by the NOAA-9 instrument in 1995 and 1996 at the processes is essential to understanding global climate same time of the season. change." K 4 Earth Observin g Satellite Launch o n Target The first of NASA's Earth Observing Satellite (EOS) spacecraft, EOS AM-1, is on schedule for its launch in June 1998, according to Robert Price, direc- tor of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth Program Of- fice at the Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, UUVIilONSMOUPPMl Maryland. Price made that observation as the spacecraft reached a critical milestone in its schedule with the 941 Ernest Clay Anderson 1997 delivery in August of its last science instrument, al- 942 Charles A. Barrere Jr. 1997 943 Joseph J. Bauer 1997 lowing completion of module testing and integration 944 Austin Caviness 1997 of the instruments and spacecraft. 945 Michael E. Gouldrick 1997 EOS AM-1 begins a new generation of the earth 946 Christy L. Henderson 1997 science—one that studies the earth as a global system. 947 Rose Stabler 1997 EOS AM-1 will carry a complement of five synergis- 948 Thomas S. Pearson tic instruments. The next critical step for EOS AM-1 is to complete Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 2539
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society – American Meteorological Society
Published: Nov 1, 1997
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