Automated aircraft data are very important as input to numerical weather prediction (NWP) models because of their accuracy, large quantity, and extensive and different data coverage compared to radiosonde data. On average, aircraft mean temperature observation increments MTOI; defined here as the observations minus the corresponding 6-h forecast (background) are more positive (warmer) than radiosondes, especially around jet level. Temperatures from different model types of aircraft exhibit a large variance in MTOI that vary with both pressure and the phase of flight (POF), confirmed by collocation studies. This paper compares temperatures of aircraft and radiosondes by collocation and MTOI differences, along with discussing the pros and cons of each method, with neither providing an absolute truth.Arguments are presented for estimating bias corrections of aircraft temperatures before input into NWP models based on the difference of their MTOI and that of radiosondes, which tends to cancel systematic errors in the background while using the radiosondes as truth. These corrections are just estimates because radiosonde temperatures have uncertainty and the NCEP background has systematic errors, in particular an MTOI of almost 2C at the tropopause that is attributable in part to vertical interpolation errors, which can be reduced by increasing model vertical resolution. The estimated temperature bias corrections are predominantly negative, of the order of 0.51.0C, with relatively small monthly changes, and often have vertically deep amplitudes.This study raises important issues pertaining to the NWP, aviation, and climate communities. Further metadata from the aviation community, field experiments comparing temperature measurements, and input from other NWP centers are recommended for refining bias corrections.
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society – American Meteorological Society
Published: Nov 19, 2008
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly
Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.
Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera