AbstractThis study investigates the statistical characteristics of extreme hourly precipitation over Taiwan during 2003–12 that exceeds the 5-, 10-, and 20-yr return values and 100 mm h−1. All the extreme precipitation records are classified into four types according to the synoptic situations under which they occur: tropical cyclones (TCs), fronts, weak-synoptic forcing, and vortex/shear line types. The TC type accounts for over three-quarters of the total records, while the front type and weak-synoptic forcing type are comparable (9%–13%). Extreme hourly precipitation is mostly caused by mei-yu fronts during May–mid-June and by TCs during July–October. The TC type tends to have a long duration time (>12 h) with a symmetrical evolution of hourly rainfall intensity, while the front type and weak-synoptic forcing type mainly occur over a short period (<6 h) with a slightly asymmetrical evolution pattern. The TC type is further divided into seven subtypes according to the location of the TC center relative to the island. When the TC center is over the island or near the coastline (distance <100 km), the spatial distribution of subtypes I–IV is largely determined by the interaction between the TC circulation and topography when a TC center is over the northwest, south, east, or northeast portion of Taiwan, respectively. When the TC center is far away (distance >100 km) from the island, the strength of the environmental southwesterly or northeasterly winds and the impingement of TC circulation on the east side of the Central Mountain Range are also key factors determining the spatial distribution of subtypes V–VII.
Monthly Weather Review – American Meteorological Society
Published: Dec 7, 2017
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