ABSTRACTTime series of solar and thermal infrared radiative flux profiles are simulated with the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model (RRTM) using a hierarchy of constraints from radar reflectivity and passive microwave cloud remote sensing measurements collected over a ship in the southeastern tropical Pacific Ocean (20°S) during the second leg of the Variability of American Monsoon Systems (VAMOS) Ocean–Cloud–Atmosphere–Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx). Incorporating additional constraints results in simulations of physically consistent radiative profiles throughout the atmosphere, especially within the cloud, where they are difficult to observe precisely. Simulated surface radiative fluxes are compared with those observed on the ship and by aircraft.Due to the strong Rayleigh scattering of drizzle drops compared to cloud droplets that absorb, emit, and scatter natural radiation, cloud radar reflectivity overestimates cloud liquid water content (LWC). As a result, clouds are optically too thick and transmission ratios are too low in simulations using radar LWC. Imposing a triangular (increasing linearly with height from zero at cloud base) LWC profile in agreement with microwave liquid water path (LWP) improves the simulation of the transmission ratio. Constraining the corresponding microphysical cloud effective radius to that retrieved from optical depth, LWP, and cloud thickness results in additional improvements to the simulations. Time series, averages, and composite diurnal cycles of radiative fluxes, heating rates, and cloud radiative forcing are presented.
Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology – American Meteorological Society
Published: Apr 26, 2018
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