AbstractThe central Indian Ocean (CIO) mode, an intrinsic coupled mode, plays an important role in the intraseasonal variabilities over the Indian monsoon region. Besides the intraseasonal variabilities, the CIO mode also has pronounced seasonal and interannual variabilities. The CIO mode is active during boreal summer but suppressed during boreal winter. The seasonality is mainly attributable to the barotropic instability, which is caused by the large meridional shear of zonal winds. By decomposing the temporal tendency of the meridional gradient of zonal winds, it is found that the zonal wind shear mainly follows the variation of the horizontal eddy flux, which indicates the importance of the multiscale interaction in tropical dynamics. The interannual variability of the CIO mode also depends on the energy transfer associated with the barotropic instability. The influences of El Niño or La Niña and Indian Ocean dipole–zonal mode (IODZM) on the CIO mode are analyzed. El Niño and La Niña have moderate impacts on the CIO mode. El Niño weakens the CIO mode and La Niña strengthens it via the changes in the low-level zonal wind shear. IODZM does not significantly change the amplitude of the CIO mode but can shift its latitudinal position by modifying the meridional shear of the zonal winds. The low-frequency variabilities of the CIO mode at seasonal and interannual time scales unveil the impacts of the background circulations at the intraseasonal variabilities during the Indian summer monsoon in a multiscale framework. While the low-frequency variabilities of this mode will clearly have an implication for monsoon variability and prediction, further studies are needed to quantify the impacts.
Journal of Climate – American Meteorological Society
Published: Aug 19, 2017
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