long-term trends. The author discusses 1) the fate in on weighted area averages of discrete classes of a set the atmosphere and 2) measurement techniques for of independent variables. The authors discuss func- oxides of nitrogen and their oxidation products, NH , tional responses and aggregation errors associated CO, sulfur compounds, and 0 ; five tables are in- with substrate availability, soil moisture, soil tempera- cluded that reference measurement techniques for ture, and soil pH. The authors indicate on pages 358- each group of chemical compounds. The author states 359 that temporal extrapolation would be discussed, on page 217 that the average flux of NO inferred from but no such discussion was found in chapter 11. enclosure measurements and the simultaneous collo- Overall, the book addresses methods for measur- cated measurement by the gradient method agrees well ing biogenic trace gas emissions from soil and water (see Table 7.1 on page 219), but the standard errors at a level appropriate for students and scientists from were quite large (0.49±0.28 vs 0.50±0.36). varied disciplines. There are 68 pages of up-to-date Recent advances in spectroscopic instrumentation references to facilitate the introduction of scientists for measuring stable gases in the natural environment into appropriate interdisciplinary studies. The index are described in chapter 8. The authors stress the revo- was extensive and accurate, but a glossary would have lutionary changes in real-time measurement of stable also been useful. An indented style may have im- gases resulting from developments in optics, electron- proved considerably the readability of bullet outlines compared to that with the left-justified style. The au- ics, and computerization. Discussion centers on CO, thors, editors, and publisher have succeeded in pre- C0 , N^O, NH , CH , simple nonmethane hydrocar- 2 3 4 paring comprehensive technical coverage, a seamless bons, and reduced sulfur species but also refers to writing style, and clear and consistent figures. The oxidative atmospheric trace species. The authors re- book is highly recommended for the reference library view four types of measurements: 1) infrared (IR) of any student or established research scientist inter- adsorption by tunable lasers, 2) IR adsorption using ested in biotic or abiotic factors associated with bio- Fourier transform IR, 3) ultraviolet/visible laser genic trace gas emission from soil or water.—John photofragmentation/fluorescence spectroscopy, and 4) Westbrook. advanced, field portable mass spectrometer systems. Uses of isotopes and tracers in the study of emis- John Westbrook is a meteorologist with the sion and consumption of trace gases in terrestrial en- vironments are summarized in chapter 9. Isotopes of Areawide Pest Management Research Unit of the U.S. H, C, N, and O are discussed, including production Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Research Ser- processes and sampling requirements. The use of de- vice at College Station, Texas. • liberate tracers SF and CCIF and naturally occurring 6 3 222 R n to document the diffusion of gases from soil is described. Blackwell Science Microbial processes of production and consump- 23 8 Main St. Cambridge, MA 0214 2 tion of nitric oxide, nitrous oxide, and methane are telephone: 617-876-7000 discussed in chapter 10. The authors emphasize func- tion groups rather than species of microorganisms to Cambridge University Press reflect the common modes of metabolism. They de- 4 0 W . 20th St. scribe the functional groups and processes of denitri- New York, N Y 1001 1 fication, nitrifying bacteria, chemonitrification, CH telephone: 800-221-4512 production, and CH oxidation. They also discuss sources and sinks of NO, N 0 , and CH . Laboratory 2 4 Diane Publishing assays for potential rates of microbial activity and field 60 0 Upland Ave. measurement of related chemical and physical prop- Upland, PA 19015 erties of the soil are discussed. telephone: 610-499-7415 Chapter 11 describes process modeling and spatial Kluwe r Academic Publishers extrapolation. The authors discussed models devel- 10 1 Philip Dr. oped through a set of coupled processes including Assinippi Park substrate production, conversion of substrate to a trace Norwell, MA 0206 1 gas or vice versa, and diffusion. Methods are pre- telephone: 617-871-630 0 sented for the spatial extrapolation of flux rates based Vol. 77, No. 3, March 7 99 6 57 6
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society – American Meteorological Society
Published: Mar 1, 1996
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